ELSINOE MANGIFERAE PDF

The disease initially presents as small dark brown or gray spots on the underside of leaves or fruit. These spots enlarge and darken over time, developing a velvety or cracked texture in the center of the lesion. With severe infections, fruit drop and defoliation may occur, and surviving fruit and plants suffer scarring that reduce their commercial value. The symptoms of mango scab vary depending on the factors such as the part of the plant that is affected, age of tissue, inoculum potential, water and mineral nutrition. Also, only young tissue is prone to infection.

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Leaves - necrotic areas Symptoms The symptoms of mango scab are extremely diverse depending on factors such as the plant part affected, cultivar, age of tissue at infection, inoculum potential, water and mineral nutrition expressed as plant vigour and lushness and possibly the amount and distribution of free water. Only young tissue is susceptible to infection, for instance fruit is no longer susceptible after it reaches about half size.

The occurrence of all symptoms is dependent on the availability of free water when the tissue is at the susceptible stage.

Initially small black lesions form on the newly set fruit. These lesions can be easily confused with the black lesions of anthracnose on newly set fruit and heavily affected fruits fall off the tree. Lesions on the fruit of the cultivar Kensington Pride, which remain on the tree, develop into light-brown scabs or scar tissue, either as small scabs or as large, irregular scar tissue when the lesions coalesce. As scabs develop they consist of scar tissue with a central scab which can, in some cases, be lifted off.

Anthracnose infection does not produce this type of scar tissue on the fruit. If there are only a few fruits affected the disease can be confused with abrasion injury. More diverse lesions occur on the cultivar Irwin, which is popular in Darwin, Australia. These lesions range from small black spots, which could be mistaken for spray injury, to small and large scarred areas, the large areas being accompanied with a depressed distortion of the fruit.

The scarred areas in all cultivars could be mistaken for damage caused by insect injury. However, with mango scab, there is no indication of any chewing to the fruit and significant numbers of potentially damaging insects will not be found. Of the two cultivars investigated in some detail in the Darwin area, Irwin has been found to incur greater damage than Kensington Pride. Unlike anthracnose, mango scab lesions do not develop into a soft rot as the fruit matures. In contrast to mango scab, injury by Amblypelta causes a much deeper depression in the fruit skin.

Lenticel blowout tends to occur on fruits when they are half grown; it is more evenly distributed on the fruit and tends not to be prominent on mature fruits. Stem, inflorescence and fruit stalk The most common symptom on stem tissue is the occurrence of numerous slightly raised, grey, oval to elliptical lesions.

If conditions are somewhat dry, the lesions will be smaller and black. Lesions on the inflorescence or frutescence may initially appear similar to those of anthracnose, however, on closer inspection or microscopic examination they are seen to be raised structures in contrast to the non-raised lesions of anthracnose. Another symptom consisting of large, light-tan, corky areas, resembling the scar tissue caused by insect injury, has been observed on stems.

Diverse lesions occur on the cultivar Irwin, which is popular in Darwin, Australia. These lesions range from small black spots, which can be mistaken for spray injury, to small and large scarred areas, the large areas with a depression of the fruit. The scarred areas in all cultivars can be mistaken for damage caused by insect injury. Leaves A wide range of symptoms has been observed on the leaves although these symptoms are largely overshadowed by the more dramatic damage on the fruits.

Common symptoms are: brown necrotic spots with halos; edge lesions associated with hydathodes; corky lesions on the lower leaf surfaces; or elongated, dark lesions along main veins under the leaf. However, elongated lesions along main veins can also be caused by Amblypelta spp. In wet weather, numerous small, brown, necrotic lesions or shot holes may form on young leaves leading to defoliation.

Other symptoms on leaves are lesions with central scabs and numerous small lesions about 0. The former can easily be dismissed as not being mango scab while the latter can be confused with mechanical abrasion. Leaves often appear distorted due to the effects of marginal or edge lesions and other lesions on the growth and expansion of the leaf. Nursery In nurseries a similar range of symptoms shot hole, numerous small necrotic lesions, distorted leaves occurs on the leaves as occurs in orchards but these tend to be more prominent on the young growth.

Defoliation is common in severe infections. Small, black or elongated, grey scab lesions are also found on young stem tissue. Prevention and control Cultural Control In severe scab infections on trees or nursery stock, it may be beneficial to prune away old infected stems to reduce the levels of inoculum. Chemical Control Copper fungicides oxychloride, hydroxide or oxide need to be applied from at least flower bud emergence to flowering, and then after the fruit has set till the fruit are half-grown, in order to protect the fruit from infection.

It is, therefore, advisable to replace the copper sprays with mancozeb during flowering and fruit set. Experiments in Darwin, Australia, indicate that the use of copper fungicides alone will not cause damage to flowering or fruit set.

Where copper sprays are used against flowering anthracnose, mango scab may be undetectable. Impact If controlled, mango scab should cause little economic damage.

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Plant in well-drained, native soil or potting mix. Irrigation Needs Water newly planted mango trees immediately after planting and every other day for several weeks. Depending on local weather conditions, for the next few months, water the tree several times weekly. For the following three years while the tree matures , weekly water applications are sufficient, with monthly applications during winter.

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Fecage Click on the language titles to launch them. The scarred areas in all cultivars could be mistaken for damage caused by insect injury. Brazilon Maangiferae coccolobifoliaFeb. They are sent to a computer by website operators or third parties. The LSU region fails to distinguish E. New discoveries of Myriangiales in the Americas. Pairwise sequence alignments Polyphasic identifications.

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