CLINACANTHUS NUTANS PDF

Apply a nut of balm on skin. Briefly spread with circular gesture. Durability : 3 years. Use within 3 months after opening. Ingredients INCI : menthol, borneol, camphor, methyl salicylate, eucalyptus globulus leaf oil, mentha piperita oil, clinacanthus nutans leaf, paraffinum liquidum, petrolatum, paraffin.

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves CN have been used in traditional medicine but the therapeutic potential has not been explored for cancer prevention and treatment. Current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of CN, extracted in chloroform, methanol, and water, on cancer cell lines.

Our data showed that CN in chloroform extract was a good antioxidant against DPPH and galvinoxyl radicals, but less effective in negating nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Chloroform extract exerted the highest antiproliferative effect on K Fourteen known compounds were identified in chloroform extract, which was analysed by gas chromatography—mass spectra analysis.

In conclusion, CN extracts possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties against cultured cancer cell lines, suggesting an alternate adjunctive regimen for cancer prevention or treatment. Introduction Cancer remains one of the major health threats to Malaysian population. RONS are commonly generated as metabolic by-products in normal cells and have an indispensable role in redox-mediated signaling. Uncontrolled RONS production overwhelming the endogenous antioxidant capacity will result in detrimental damage to cellular protein, lipid, and DNA, leading to genomic instability, and ultimately promotes cancer formation [ 5 — 7 ].

Evidence has shown that oncogene activation, increased metabolic activity, and mitochondrial malfunction are common causes which are responsible for substantial surge in cellular RONS level [ 8 ]. Therefore, scavenging RONS with antioxidant supplement could salvage cells from oxidative stress and prevent cancer growth and expansion. This benefit had also been seen in patients at risk of breast cancer, who were saved from the disease by taking antioxidant supplement, such as carotenoids [ 9 ].

With advances in cancer research, many molecular targeted drugs have been introduced and showed promising outcome with little side effects. However the use has also been limited by genomic instability and drug resistance characteristics in certain cancer cells. Thus, interest has been shifted to study traditional herbs as alternate anticancer regimens due to its multitargeted characteristics.

Hence, we sought to evaluate Clinacanthus nutans Lindau for its potential to be used as natural nutraceuticals for cancer prevention and treatment. Clinacanthus nutans Lindau CN , also known as Sabah Snake Grass, from the family Acanthaceae, is a type of famous medicinal plants in Thai folklore medicine. Previously, CN has traditionally been used to treat inflammation [ 10 ] and viral infection [ 11 , 12 ]. The use of this herb has also been translated in clinics to treat herpes infection in Thailand [ 13 ].

The cholophyll derivatives phaeophytins of CN chloroform extracts contained hydroxy- R -phaeophytin b, hydroxy- S -phaeophytin a, and hydroxy- R -phaeophytin and exhibited antiherpes simplex activity [ 14 ], potentially through herpes virus inactivation and inhibition preinfection [ 15 ].

Despite all the known biological activities from previous work, emerging lay testimonies and Malaysian newspaper reports suggested that CN possesses antitumor effects and had saved many of various cancers. However, these testimonies were not supported by scientific evidence. We hypothesize that CN derivatives could be a source of cytoprotective antioxidant based anticancer regimen. Hence, the main objective in this study was to examine the antioxidant and cytotoxicity effects of C.

Methods and Materials 2. Plant Materials Whole plant of Clinacanthus nutans Burm. Lindau was harvested in November from botanical garden in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The botanical identify of C. Preparation of Extracts The C. The extracts in all three solvents were collected separately in clean glass bottles. Extracts were then filtered using Whatman no. The filtrates in chloroform and methanol were dried by using rotary evaporator, while filtrates in distilled water were dried with a freeze drier. Determination of Antioxidant Properties 2.

Then, the mixtures were swirled gently for 1 min and kept in dark for 60 min. Galvinoxyl Radical Scavenging Activity In order to determine the galvinoxyl radical scavenging activity of each extract. Extracts were serially diluted to Then, the mixture was swirled gently for 1 min and kept in the dark for 60 min. Scavenger of NO will eventually reduce the production of nitrite ion in solution which can be determined by the use of Griess reagent.

DMSO in distilled water 0. The absorbance of the chromophore which was formed in the reaction was measured at nm against the corresponding control. Briefly, sample extract 2 mL with different concentration The mixture was incubated for 10 min, and the absorbance was measured at nm. An equal volume of distilled water without H2O2 served as blank. Antiproliferation Assay Antiproliferative activity of the three extracts was examined by using MTT assay [ 19 ].

The plate was centrifuged at rpm for 10 min and the supernatant was removed. The amount of purple formazan produced relative to number of viable cells was determined by measuring the absorbance with a microplate spectrophotometer reader at nm. For CN treated cells, viability was expressed as a percentage of control cells. All the assays were carried out in triplicate and in three independent tests.

All the extracts were dissolved in DMSO at final concentration less than 0. Under these conditions, DMSO was not toxic to all the cancer cell lines mentioned above. Total run time was 60 min. The chromatograms of the sample were identified by comparing their mass spectra with NIST08 library data, and the GC retention time against known standards.

Results 3. However, CNA showed the lowest activity with antioxidant capacity value The antioxidant activity of the C.

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