Military EMC Staff, Intertek February 1, The reliable operation of complex electronic communications, control and armament systems in extreme environments demands stringent design criteria and careful validation. Severe shock, vibration, heat, humidity and airborne contaminants are common in land, sea and air platforms. Coupled with dense packaging, high-power radio and radar illumination, Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance HERO , and a possible electromagnetic pulse EMP , the military equipment environmental requirements can be extreme indeed. In order to expedite equipment availability and reduce cost, the acquisition of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS equipment for US military applications is an attractive consideration. But many types of commercial equipment are unlikely to meet all military environmental requirements as manufactured, so some modification or re-design is usually needed.
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Pete Dorey The electromagnetic compatibility EMC risk assessment process described in Defence Standard contains four key steps to assess whether any protection, such as shielding racks and filters, is needed to reduce equipment susceptibility to harsh defence electromagnetic environments and to enhance compatibility with sensitive systems such as military radio.
The target electromagnetic environment is usually specified in a User Requirement Document URD or System Requirement Document SRD , and is likely to be one of the default electromagnetic environments described in Def Stan , such as a ship below-decks environment. However, it may also be specified for a unique purpose, to ensure compatibility with specified systems, or tailored to a specific environment.
However, obtaining the evidence of EMC compliance is often a major challenge. Any shortfalls identified also help to specify the degree of additional protection that is required, such as shielding or filter attenuation.
During this process, it is imperative to identify the test methods and account for them as part of the comparison. This can be a time consuming, costly and complex exercise, so the use of specifically designed gap analysis tools is recommended. If any unacceptable risks are identified, they must be mitigated. For example, if the equipment has a critical function itself, adequate immunity is required. If the equipment is co-located with other sensitive critical equipment, adequate emission control is required.
Once the functional criticality process has determined the unacceptable risks, they must then be mitigated. However, the disadvantage is the cost of the additional required testing. Additional filters and transient protection can also be accommodated within the enclosure. Member states can exclude defence equipment from the scope of European Union procurement regulations and Directives pursuant to Article ex. This is not a decision for the manufacturer.
Applying the EMC Directive to defence equipment requires careful management to avoid unnecessary duplication of compliance-testing — once for Def Stan and once for CE marking, which will incur additional costs. This in itself can be a time consuming and costly exercise and often takes users away from their core expertise or comfort zone. Due to the complexity of performing gap analysis, such a partner could offer a low risk, and ultimately low cost solution to deal with defence EMC requirements.
It will ensure that the resulting products are legally placed on the market and acceptable for delivery, particularly for high-value projects.
To cater for particular interests of each of the three Service Arms of the MOD, their special requirements are noted as they arise, under the headings above. Although Part 1 is concerned primarily with EMC, the management and control procedures described can be applied across the E3 disciplines e. The MOD should ensure that their Prime Contractor recognises and exploits the economies arising from the degree of commonality which exists between EMC and these kindred subjects, with respect to equipment design, management and control procedures, and even test requirements where possible. This EMC Control Plan is in advance of formal specifications; however, priority will be given to managing EMC risks and performance in the following order: a safety e.
DEF STAN 59-411: PART 01
EMC Testing of Military Devices
MIL-STD-461 & DEF STAN 59-411 EMC Testing