FUNDAMENTOS DE MANUFACTURA MODERNA GROOVER 3 ED PDF

Define the property density of a material. Density is the weight per unit volume. A pure metal element melts at one temperature the melting point , while an alloy begins melting at a certain temperature called the solidus and finally completes the transformation to the molten state at a higher temperature called the liquidus. Between the solidus and liquidus, the metal is a mixture of solid and liquid.

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Define the property density of a material. Density is the weight per unit volume. A pure metal element melts at one temperature the melting point , while an alloy begins melting at a certain temperature called the solidus and finally completes the transformation to the molten state at a higher temperature called the liquidus. Between the solidus and liquidus, the metal is a mixture of solid and liquid.

In the heating of a noncrystalline material such as glass, the material begins to soften as temperature increases, finally converting to a liquid at a temperature defined for these materials as the melting point. Specific heat is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of the material by one degree. Thermal conductivity is the capacity of a material to transfer heat energy through itself by thermal movement only no mass transfer.

Thermal diffusivity is the thermal conductivity divided by the volumetric specific heat. Metals are better conductors because of metallic bonding, which permits electrons to move easily within the metal. Ceramics and polymers have covalent and ionic bonding, in which the electrons are tightly bound to particular molecules.

The dielectric strength is defined as the electrical potential required to break down the insulator per unit thickness. An electrolyte is an ionized solution capable of conducting electric current by movement of the ions. Multiple Choice Quiz There are a total of 12 correct answers in the following multiple choice questions some questions have multiple answers that are correct.

To attain a perfect score on the quiz, all correct answers must be given, since each correct answer is worth 1 point. For each question, each omitted answer or wrong answer reduces the score by 1 point, and each additional answer beyond the number of answers required reduces the score by 1 point. Percentage score on the quiz is based on the total number of correct answers. In these cases, which of the following temperatures marks the beginning of melting?

This is perhaps a trick question. Choices a and b are included in Eq. Temperature e has a strong influence on the diffusion coefficient. Time f figures into the process because it affects the concentration gradient; as time elapses, the concentration gradient is reduced so that the rate of diffusion is reduced. This shaft is to be inserted into a hole in an expansion fit assembly operation.

To be readily inserted, the shaft must be reduced in diameter by cooling. Refer to Table 4. Revise Eq. Solution: Assume a 1 cm3 cube, 1 cm on each side. From Table 4. Conversion: 1. Use Table 4. A tolerance is defined as the total amount by which a specified dimension is permitted to vary. The reasons why surfaces are important include: aesthetics, safety, friction and wear, effect of surface on mechanical and physical properties, mating of components in assembly, and thermal electrical contacts.

The nominal surface is the ideal part surface represented on an engineering drawing. It is assumed perfectly smooth; perfectly flat if referring to a planar surface; perfectly round if referring to a round surface, etc. Surface texture is the random and repetitive deviations from the nominal surface, including roughness, waviness, lay, and flaws.

Surface texture refers only to the surface geometry; surface integrity includes not only surface but the altered layers beneath the surface.

Roughness consists of the finely-spaced deviations from the nominal surface, while waviness refers to the deviations of larger spacing. Roughness deviations lie within waviness deviations. Surface roughness is defined as the average value of the vertical deviations from the nominal surface over a specified surface length. Surface roughness measurement provides only a single value of surface texture. Among its limitations are: 1 it varies depending on direction; 2 it does not indicate lay; 3 its value depends on the roughness width cutoff L used to measure the average.

The changes and injuries include: cracks, craters, variations in hardness near the surface, metallurgical changes resulting from heat, residual stresses, intergranular attack, etc. Energy input resulting from the manufacturing process used to generate the surface. The energy forms can be any of several types, including mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical. Processes that produce poor surfaces include: sand casting, hot rolling, sawing, and thermal cutting e.

Processes that produced very good and excellent surfaces include: honing, lapping, polishing, and superfinishing. Multiple Choice Quiz There are a total of 19 correct answers in the following multiple choice questions some questions have multiple answers that are correct.

Also, sawing e will yield a poor finish. Accept either answer. Metallic properties include: high strength and stiffness, good electrical and thermal conductivity, and higher density than ceramics or polymers. Define them. Ferrous metals, which are based on iron; and nonferrous, which includes all others. An alloy is a metal comprised of two or more elements, at least one of which is metallic.

A solid solution is an alloy in which one of the metallic elements is dissolved in another to form a single phase. A substitutional solid solution is where the atoms of dissolved element replace atoms of the solution element in the lattice structure of the metal. An interstitial solid solution is where the dissolved atoms are small and fit into the vacant spaces the interstices in the lattice structure of the solvent metal.

An intermediate phase is an alloy formed when the solubility limit of the base metal in the mixture is exceeded and a new phase, such as a metallic compound e. Why is it so simple? The Cu-Ni alloy system is simple because it is a solid solution alloy throughout its entire composition range.

The carbon content ranges from 0. The carbon content ranges from 2. The common alloying elements in low alloy steel are Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, and V; we should also mention the most important, which is C. All of the alloying elements other than C strengthen the steel by solid solution alloying. Cr, Mn, Mo, and Ni increase hardenability during heat treatment.

Cr and Mo improve hot hardness. Vanadium inhibits grain growth during heat treatment which improves strength and toughness. If no heat treatment carbon strengthens by creating a two-phase structure in the steel. It is called austenitic because this alloy exists in its austenitic phase at room temperature. The reason is that nickel has the effect of enlarging the austenitic temperature range to include room temperature. Aluminum is noted for its low density, high electrical and thermal conductivity, formability, good corrosion resistance due to the formation of a tough oxide film on its surface, and ability to be alloyed and strengthened to achieve good strength-to-weight ratios.

Magnesium is noted for its very low density lightest of the structural metals , propensity to oxidize which can cause problems in processing , and low strength; however, it can be alloyed and strengthened by methods similar to those used for aluminum alloys to achieve respectable strength-to-weight ratios. Its high electrical conductivity. The important applications are: 1 as an alloying ingredient in steel, e.

Titanium is noted for its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance due to the formation of a thin but tough oxide film , and high temperature strength.

The important applications are: 1 die castings - zinc is an easy metal to cast; 2 as a coating in galvanized steel; 3 as an alloying element with copper to form brass.

Mo and W are the most important. Name the three groups. The three groups are: 1 iron-based alloys, 2 nickel-based alloys, and 3 cobalt-based alloys. What distinguishes them from other alloys? The superalloys are generally distinguished by their strength and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures.

The three basic methods are: 1 alloying to form solid solutions and two-phase structures which are stronger than the elemental metals; 2 cold working, in which the strain-hardened metal is stronger and harder than the unstrained metal; and 3 heat treatment - most of the commercial heat treatments are designed to increase the strength of the metal. Multiple Choice Quiz There are a total of 23 correct answers in the following multiple choice questions some questions have multiple answers that are correct.

Solution: From Fig 6. If so, what would be its nominal composition? A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic compound, usually formed into useful products by a heating process. Oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and iron. Traditional ceramics are based primarily on clay products e. Glass is noncrystalline amorphous , while most other ceramics assume a crystalline structure.

Because they are not compounds; they are alternative forms of the element carbon. Usually high hardness, brittle, no ductility. Usually electrical and thermal insulators, medium density typically below the density of metals , high melting temperatures, thermal expansion usually less than metals. Covalent and ionic bonding. They are both minerals of alumina. Glazing involves the application of a surface coating of oxides such as alumina and silica, usually to a porous ceramic product such as earthenware, to make the product more impervious to moisture and more attractive.

Refractories are heat resistant ceramic materials. The term is sometimes also applied to metals that are heat resistant. Important applications of WC-Co include: cutting tool inserts, drawing dies, rock drilling bits, dies for powder metallurgy, and other applications where hardness is a critical factor. As a thin coating on cutting tools to prolong tool life.

Silicon, aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen. Glass is an inorganic, nonmetallic material which cools to a rigid solid without crystallization.

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FUNDAMENTOS DE MANUFACTURA MODERNA GROOVER 3 ED PDF

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