Table of contents 1. What Is Geology? Historical Geology and the Formulation of Theories. Perspective: Exoplanets. Plate Tectonic Theory. Organic Evolution and the History of Life.
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Most minerals are compounds, which are naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids. Gemstones Some minerals qualify as collectible and valuable. Students can investigate the materials within their own dwellings, and identify them as far as the mineral or rock type, and the location from which items are mined. Students can investigate these various rock countertops and floor tiles, and correctly classify them using the information in the chapter.
Many campuses have fine examples of granite, but other building materials may include travertine, limestone, basalt, gabbro, sandstone, breccia, gneiss, etc. In particular, the instructor may explore organic composition, liquid phases, and man-created gemstones.
Is the element mercury a mineral by our definition? Why or why not? Does glacial ice classify as a mineral? If a laboratory gemstone has identical composition and physical properties as a substance found in nature, is it a mineral?
Does coal classify as a mineral? Ask students to think of examples where a substance may classify as a rock, but it is not made of minerals. Common Rock-Forming Minerals Students can learn more about the common rock-forming minerals. Although there are over 3, different minerals, only a few are common within rocks.
Ask your students to locate the formulas of the common rock-forming minerals, and then classify them into the mineral groups recognized by geologists Table 2.
Rock Types If students are presented with an assortment of rocks, how would they begin determining which were sedimentary, which were metamorphic, and which were igneous? Discuss the characteristics of the rock groups, including clastic texture, foliation, and crystalline composition. The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified primarily by the size of the included particle, not composition. The Rock Cycle Discuss the various paths that rocks can take within the rock cycle, and how one rock type can be transformed into all the other rock types.
Can a sedimentary rock form metamorphic rock and igneous rock? Discuss a pathway by which an existing sedimentary rock can become a new sedimentary rock. How does the processing of Earth materials through the various transitions of the rock cycle affect the aspects of the rocks that allow us to date them?
In which types of rocks do we find fossils? Are these fossils preserved if the rock containing the fossils is transformed to other rock types within the rock cycle? Economic Geology—Rare Earth Elements Rare earth elements are critically important to developing the technologies we have come to rely upon such as smaller electronics, green energy, medical technologies, and telecommunication and defense systems. There are seventeen rare earths— scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanide series. Mining of rare earth elements is complicated because they are typically found with the radioactive elements thorium and uranium.
Because China is the primary producer of rare earth elements, it controls the global market. Why is the world concerned that China is the primary supplier of rare earth minerals? Is this concern justified? Do you think the trade-off is worthwhile?
The two articles linked are from and Have students research through The New York Times how, or if, the economic and political landscape around rare earth elements has changed. How can you identify a nonfoliated metamorphic rock, such as marble, from the original rock? What characteristics might nonfoliated metamorphic rocks have that make their identification easier? Would nonfoliated metamorphic rocks be easier to identify in the field, rather than in the laboratory as an assortment of samples?
Can we identify specific environments associated with plate tectonic boundaries in which various rock types would form? Are igneous rocks associated with convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries? In which environments are metamorphic, and sedimentary, rocks produced? IMPORTANT TERMS atom atomic mass number atomic number bonding carbonate mineral carbonate rock chemical sedimentary rock compound contact metamorphism crystalline solid detrital sedimentary rock dynamic metamorphism economic geology element evaporite extrusive igneous rock geologic record igneous rock intrusive igneous rock lava lithification magma metamorphic rock mineral 16 plutonic rock pyroclastic materials regional metamorphism rock rock cycle rock-forming mineral sedimentary rock silicate volcanic rock SUGGESTED MEDIA Videos 1.
Rocks and Minerals, Cambridge Educational Products 5. Core Geology, Ambrose Video 8. Igneous Rocks, Ambrose Video 9. Introduction to Rocks and Minerals, Ambrose Video Metamorphic Rocks, Ambrose Video Sedimentary Rocks, Ambrose Video Software 1. Study of Minerals, RockWare, Inc.
Rocks and Topography, slide set, Educational Images, Ltd. Natural Crystal Collection, Science Stuff 5. Ores of Common Metals, rock collection, Science Stuff 6. Deposits of mud and sand would lithify to form detrital sedimentary rocks. After deposition, the clasts would undergo compaction from the pressure exerted by overlying sediments.
For mud-sized particles, compaction only would likely be sufficient to cause lithification. For sand-sized clasts, minerals would precipitate to fill the pore spaces, gluing the sand grains together in a process called cementation.
The processes of compaction and cementation would result in lithification for the sand particles. Ionic bonding is a type of bonding where one atom transfers an electron to another atom, so that each atom has a complete outer shell.
The formation of sodium chloride provides an excellent example of ionic bonding. Sodium has one electron in its outer shell, whereas chlorine has seven electrons. By losing one electron, sodium becomes a positive ion with a full outer shell. By taking one electron, chlorine becomes a negative ion with a full outer shell.
An attractive force between the positive and negative ions exists, which forms the ionic bond. Ice is a mineral because it is a naturally occurring, inorganic crystalline solid. While water vapor and water are naturally occurring and inorganic, they are not crystalline solids. Water vapor is a gas, and water is a liquid. Contact metamorphism occurs when heat and chemical fluids from an igneous body alter adjacent rocks. The degree of metamorphism decreases with increasing distance from the body of magma until the surrounding rocks are unaffected.
A type of rock that forms from contact metamorphism is hornfels. Regional metamorphism takes place over large but elongated areas as the result of tremendous pressure, elevated temperatures, and fluid activity. This type of metamorphism is most obvious along convergent plate boundaries where the rocks are intensely deformed during convergence and subduction.
It can also occur along divergent boundaries. Gneiss is found in areas with regional metamorphism. It is difficult to determine from a picture alone the identity of a mineral, as characteristic properties like hardness and streak cannot be measured.
Based on the picture, these specimens could be ruled not diamond based on their luster. Diamond has an adamantine luster, which means it is exceptionally sparkly.
Fluorite, as pictured, has a vitreous luster, which means it reflects like more like glass, and with less brilliance than diamond. Color would not be a good indicator, since both diamonds and fluorite can be gray, white, or yellow.
Most minerals are compounds, which are naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids. Gemstones Some minerals qualify as collectible and valuable. Students can investigate the materials within their own dwellings, and identify them as far as the mineral or rock type, and the location from which items are mined. Students can investigate these various rock countertops and floor tiles, and correctly classify them using the information in the chapter. Many campuses have fine examples of granite, but other building materials may include travertine, limestone, basalt, gabbro, sandstone, breccia, gneiss, etc. In particular, the instructor may explore organic composition, liquid phases, and man-created gemstones. Is the element mercury a mineral by our definition?
Historical Geology / Edition 8
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