LINGUAGGIO LUA PDF

This is the first plugin in GCompris coded in the Python Programming language. Linguaggi di programmazione per la scuola: Logo, Scratch, Snap! Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. This becomes possible because LaTeX offers a kind of "Programming language for documents" in which texts are being written.

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The classic "Hello, World! Multi-line strings and comments are adorned with double square brackets. You can also do a nested loop, which is a loop inside of another loop. The usual print function can still be used through oldprint. The new one has only one argument. This also helps to reduce data cost and up performance if being called iteratively.

Tables[ edit ] Tables are the most important data structures and, by design, the only built-in composite data type in Lua and are the foundation of all user-created types. They are associative arrays with addition of automatic numeric key and special syntax. A table is a collection of key and data pairs, where the data is referenced by key; in other words, it is a hashed heterogeneous associative array.

A key index can be any value except nil and NaN , including functions. A table is often used as structure or record by using strings as keys. Because such use is very common, Lua features a special syntax for accessing such fields.

The easier-to-read dot notation is just syntactic sugar. By using a table to store related functions, it can act as a namespace. The first automatic index is 1 rather than 0 as it is for many other programming languages though an explicit index of 0 is allowed. A numeric key 1 is distinct from a string key "1". Automatic indexing in Lua starts at 1.

For a regular array, with non-nil values from 1 to a given n, its length is exactly that n, the index of its last value. If the array has "holes" that is, nil values between other non-nil values , then t can be any of the indices that directly precedes a nil value that is, it may consider any such nil value as the end of the array.

The following example demonstrates an "infinite" table. For any n, fibs[n] will give the n-th Fibonacci number using dynamic programming and memoization. By placing functions and related data into a table, an object is formed. Inheritance both single and multiple can be implemented using the metatable mechanism, telling the object to look up nonexistent methods and fields in parent object s. There is no such concept as "class" with these techniques; rather, prototypes are used, similar to Self or JavaScript.

New objects are created either with a factory method that constructs new objects from scratch or by cloning an existing object. Lua provides some syntactic sugar to facilitate object orientation. To declare member functions inside a prototype table, one can use function table:func args , which is equivalent to function table.

Calling class methods also makes use of the colon: object:func args is equivalent to object. The compilation process is typically invisible to the user and is performed during run-time , but it can be done offline in order to increase loading performance or reduce the memory footprint of the host environment by leaving out the compiler.

Lua version 5. The register architecture both avoids excessive copying of values and reduces the total number of instructions per function. The virtual machine of Lua 5 is one of the first register-based pure VMs to have a wide use. The API, like the language, is minimalistic.

Advanced functionality is provided by the auxiliary library, which consists largely of preprocessor macros which assist with complex table operations. Lua provides functions to push and pop most simple C data types integers, floats, etc.

The Lua stack is somewhat different from a traditional stack; the stack can be indexed directly, for example. Negative indices indicate offsets from the top of the stack. Marshalling data between C and Lua functions is also done using the stack.

When writing a C function to be directly called from Lua, the arguments are read from the stack. It is possible to write extension modules using the Lua API. Extension modules are shared objects which can be used to extend the functionality of the interpreter by providing native facilities to Lua scripts. From the Lua side, such a module appears as a namespace table holding its functions and variables. Lua scripts may load extension modules using require, [15] just like modules written in Lua itself.

A growing collection of modules known as rocks are available through a package management system called LuaRocks , [17] in the spirit of CPAN , RubyGems and Python eggs. Prewritten Lua bindings exist for most popular programming languages, including other scripting languages. Main article: List of applications using Lua In video game development , Lua is widely used as a scripting language by programmers , mainly due to its perceived easiness to embed, fast execution, and short learning curve.

Through the Scribunto extension, Lua is available as a server side scripting language in the MediaWiki software that powers Wikipedia and other wikis. Lua has also been used in Roblox Studio [25] since to modify the game environment and developer usages.

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What is Lua? Lua is a powerful, efficient, lightweight, embeddable scripting language. It supports procedural programming, object-oriented programming, functional programming, data-driven programming, and data description. Lua combines simple procedural syntax with powerful data description constructs based on associative arrays and extensible semantics. Lua is dynamically typed, runs by interpreting bytecode with a register-based virtual machine, and has automatic memory management with incremental garbage collection, making it ideal for configuration, scripting, and rapid prototyping. Where does Lua come from?

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