Se nota en toda su obra la influencia de Marx y particularmente de Antonio Gramsci. Por otra parte, el amor es el anhelo de querer y preservar el objeto querido. Cuando los amantes se sienten inseguros tienden a comportarse de manera poco constructiva tratando de complacer o controlar. Los celulares permiten a los que se conectan… mantenerse a distancia. El progreso, en resumen, ha dejado de ser un discurso que habla de mejorar la vida de todos para convertirse en un discurso de supervivencia personal.
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Learn how and when to remove this template message In the late s and early s Bauman published a number of books that dealt with the relationship between modernity, bureaucracy, rationality and social exclusion.
It involved control over nature, hierarchical bureaucracy, rules and regulations, control and categorisation — all of which attempted to remove gradually personal insecurities, making the chaotic aspects of human life appear well-ordered and familiar. Bauman in Later in a number of books Bauman began to develop the position that such order-making never manages to achieve the desired results. When life becomes organised into familiar and manageable categories, he argued, there are always social groups who cannot be administered, who cannot be separated out and controlled.
In Modernity and Ambivalence Bauman attempted to give an account of the different approaches modern society adopts toward the stranger. He argued that, on the one hand, in a consumer-oriented economy the strange and the unfamiliar is always enticing; in different styles of food, different fashions and in tourism it is possible to experience the allure of what is unfamiliar.
Yet this strange-ness also has a more negative side. Rather, he argued, the Holocaust should be seen as deeply connected to modernity and its order-making efforts.
Procedural rationality, the division of labour into smaller and smaller tasks, the taxonomic categorisation of different species, and the tendency to view obedience to rules as morally good, all played their role in the Holocaust coming to pass.
Bauman, like the philosopher Giorgio Agamben , contended that the same processes of exclusion that were at work in the Holocaust could, and to an extent do, still come into play today. Postmodernity and consumerism[ edit ] In the mid-to-late s, Bauman began to explore postmodernity and consumerism. It had changed from a society of producers into a society of consumers. In his books in the s Bauman wrote of this as being a shift from "modernity" to "post-modernity".
Since the turn of the millennium, his books have tried to avoid the confusion surrounding the term "postmodernity" by using the metaphors of "liquid" and "solid" modernity. In his books on modern consumerism, Bauman still writes of the same uncertainties that he portrayed in his writings on "solid" modernity; but in these books he writes of fears becoming more diffuse and harder to pin down.
Indeed, they are, to use the title of one of his books, "liquid fears" — fears about paedophilia , for instance, which are amorphous and have no easily identifiable reference. The author forwards this idea that "we desire and seek a realization that usually consists of an constant becoming, in a permanent disposition of becoming". In this framework, Bauman explores how can art position itself in a world where the fleeting is the dominant paradigm.
Art is substantially something that contributes to give immortality to virtually anything: hence the philosopher wonders, "can art transform the ephemeral into an eternal matter?
Bauman concludes that the current reality is characterized by individuals who do not have time nor space to relate with the everlasting, with absolute and established values. Art and the relation of people with them, both in creating it and in participating of it, is dramatically changing.
Citing Hannah Arendt , he asserts that "an object is cultural if it persists; its temporary aspect, its permanence, is opposite to the functional [ Withal, the concept of culture and art can only find a sense in the liquid society if it abandons its traditional understanding and adopts the deconstructive approach. Adorno Award of the city of Frankfurt in In this book Bauman is said to have copied verbatim paragraphs from Wikipedia articles on Slow Food and steady-state economy , along with their bibliography, without attributing sources, authors or the fact that they were copied from Wikipedia.
He did use a paragraph from the article on the golden handshake , but this citation was properly attributed to Wikipedia. Giroux concluded: "This charge against Bauman is truly despicable. This is a discourse that enshrines data, correlations, and performance, while eschewing matters of substance, social problems, and power.
Warszawa: Iskry. Questions and Concepts]. Preliminaria [Culture and Society, Preliminaries]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar. The Evolution of the British Labour Movement. A Sociological Study.