You are on page 1of 1 Search inside document Key Study: Anderson and Pichert Aim: To investigate if schema processing influences both encoding and retrieval Method: Highly controlled lab experiment; tight control of variables allowed for the establishment of a cause-andeffect relationship Procedure: The participants listened to a story about two boys who skipped school one day, who went to one of their homes because it was always empty on Thursdays. The house was described as isolated and in a good neighborhood, with a leaky roof, a color TV, a coin collection, and a bike. The participants heard a story that was based on 72 points and were split into halfhalf the group were to read the story in terms of a house-buyer and the other half in terms of a burglar. After reading, they were distracted for 12 minutes, than delayed for 5 minutes as half the participants had to receive a different schemathose in the burglar group were switched to the buyer group and vice versa. The other half of the participants retained their schema. Their recall was tested.
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December 12, Aim: To investigate if schema processing influences both encoding and retrieval Procedure: The participants were given one schema at the encoding stage and one schema at the retrieval stage, to see if they were influenced by the last schema when they had to recall the information. The participants heard a story that was based on 72 points. Half of the participants were asked to read the story for the point of view of a house-buyer and the other half from the point of view of a burglar.
After a break, half of the participants were given a different schema, so the burglars switched to the buyers and vice versa. The other half were tested on their original schema again. Results: The researchers found that the group of participants in the changed schema group were able to recall 7 percent more points on the second test than on the first one.
Recall of points that were directly linked to the new schema increased by 10 per cent, whereas recall of points that were important to the previous schema declined. The researchers also found that the group which continued with the first schema actually remembered fewer ideas at the second trial.
Conclusion: The results indicated that schema processing has some effect at retrieval and encoding, because the new schema could only have influenced recall at the retrieval stage.
The results also showed that people encoded information which was irrelevant to their prevailing schema, because the group that had the buyer schema at encoding were able to recall burglar information when they changed the schema. Evaluation: The experiment was highly controlled in a laboratory, so there may be lack of ecological validity. However, the variable control enabled the researchers to establish a cause-and-effect relationship on how schemas affect different memory processes.
Anderson and Pichert (1978)
Vusar To what extent do cognitive an There are four dependent variables. Second, the schema provides oichert framework or a scaffolding which facilitates the collection of information significant to the schema Ausubel ; Chiesi, Spilich and Voss ; Spilich, Voss, Chiesi and Vesonder They did not recall the wine and picnic basket that were in the office. Anderson and Pichert Evidence exists supporting both the encoding explanation Alba, Alexander, Hasher and Caniglia ; Ausubel ; Ausubeland the retrieval explanation Anderson and Pichert ; Anderson, Pichert and Shirey ; Mandler and Johnson ; Pichert and Anderson It is the expert that possesses both general and specific schema. In order to understand the influences of the processes active during encoding and retrieval, two different conditions are used. The results indicated that schema processing has some effect at retrieval and encoding, because the new schema could only have influenced recall at the retrieval stage.
Anderson and Pichert
ANDERSON AND PICHERT 1978 PDF