Two of the more common are microtia and anotia infant ear deformities. Microtia means an incompletely formed external ear, called the pinna or auricle. It is a term used for a group of congenital external ear disorders. It may or may not be associated with atresia, or closure of the external auditory or ear canal.
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Two of the more common are microtia and anotia infant ear deformities. Microtia means an incompletely formed external ear, called the pinna or auricle.
It is a term used for a group of congenital external ear disorders. It may or may not be associated with atresia, or closure of the external auditory or ear canal. Anotia is the complete absence of the external ear. The majority of children with microtia do not have nerve deafness because their middle and inner ears are normal. They may need assistance with the transmission of sound to the inner ear but can lead very normal lives.
Anatomy of the outer ear: The outer part of the ear collects sound. Sound travels through the auricle cartilage covered by skin and the auditory canal ear canal , a short tube that ends at the eardrum tympanic membrane. No one knows for certain the exact cause. One theory suggests a disruption in blood flow from the stapedial artery early in the development of the fetus.
Others suggest genetic causes, environmental causes, or a combination of both. The inner ear houses the structures and nerve cells responsible for sensorineural hearing, and is not necessarily affected when microtia occurs. All the right parts of the inner ear may be there and working. If there is hearing loss in that ear, it is usually a conductive hearing loss because sound cannot reach the inner ear when there is a closed external ear canal atresia.
A child may need an assistance device for the transmission of sound to the inner ear. The health of both ears needs to be monitored closely throughout childhood. How common is this? Microtia is a birth defect that occurs in 1 in every 6,, children. It is more common in boys than girls. It happens more frequently in people of Japanese or Navajo ancestry.
It is rare to have both sides affected and usually affects the right side more often than the left. Does this mean something else is wrong with my child? Microtia can occur in isolation and may not be associated with other congenital abnormalities. It may, however, occur when one side of the face is less developed than the other side, called craniofacial or hemifacial microsomia. Microtia can also be a part of a syndrome like Treacher Collins syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, and Nager syndrome.
What are my options? There are several different options. The first would be to do nothing. Depending on the degree of deformity, some people choose to live with the current appearance of the ear. The use of a prosthetic ear is also possible. How many surgeries would my child need? The first surgery involves placing the framework under the skin in the correct position of the ear.
A skin graft is used in this process. The ear will look flat against the side of the head after this surgery. This is normal and expected at this point. The second surgery raises the ear away from the head. The ear will be reshaped as well. The second surgery is planned about 3 months after the first, in order to allow your body time to heal. Will we have to spend the night at the hospital?
You would go home with a dressing in place that we would later remove in the office. The second stage of reconstruction usually does not require an overnight stay in the hospital. How painful is the surgery? As with any surgery, there is some degree of pain involved. Part of our job is to make you feel as comfortable as possible.
We will make sure you go home with your pain well controlled on medicine that you can take by mouth. They are porous polyethylene implants used to reconstruct body parts like ear and skull defects.
More than , procedures have been performed with MEDPOR Biomaterial, and there are over published clinical reports in cranial, reconstructive, oculoplastic, and cosmetic applications. Anatomy of a Normal Infant Ear.
Información sobre la anotia y la microtia
Nemi Introduction The external ear consists of the auricle, the external acoustic meatus and the tympanic membrane. Eur J Med Genet. In the same study, screening of the BMP5 locus revealed a missense mutation in four patients. Photographs of individuals with different types of microtia compose of 10 photos. However, it is not clear when these signaling components are required, nor whether these particular ligands and receptors are expressed in the pinna during late gestation.
ANOTIA Y MICROTIA PDF
Classification[ edit ] According to the Altman-classification, there are four grades of microtia:  Grade I: A less than complete development of the external ear with identifiable structures and a small but present external ear canal Grade II: A partially developed ear usually the top portion is underdeveloped with a closed stenotic external ear canal producing a conductive hearing loss. Grade III: Absence of the external ear with a small peanut-like vestige structure and an absence of the external ear canal and ear drum. Grade III microtia is the most common form of microtia. Grade IV: Absence of the total ear or anotia. Causes and Risk Factors[ edit ] The etiology of microtia in children remains uncertain but there are some cases that associate the cause of microtia with genetic defects in multiple or single genes, altitude, and gestational diabetes.
Congenital Ear Deformity Microtia and Anotia