Most of the particles are not highly pleomorphic but rounded. By comparison type C has a higher amino acid sequence homology to human MPV. Other viruses from the genus Metapneumovirus include the same genome arrangement. The detailed molecular reaction of them is not well investigated. At later stages, signs include mucopurulent , turbid nasal discharge; plugged nostrils; swollen infraorbital sinuses; and snicking, sneezing, coughing,"  which can lead to a prolapsed uterus if it is excessive  "or tracheal rales. Infection with the virus is associated with swollen head syndrome, with swelling peri- and infraorbital sinuses, foamy eyes, nasal discharge.
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Avian pneumovirus infections. Age affected: All. Causes: Pneumovirus is a single-stranded, nm RNA virus. Effects: Sneezing and nasal discharge, foamy conjunctivitis, swelling of infra-orbital sinuses, submandibular oedema, torticollis and cerebral disorientation may occur. Drop in egg production in layers. Detailed causes: Swollen head syndrome is a chronic disease affecting chickens and turkeys of all ages.
Avian pneumovirus is a non-hemagglutinating, nonsegmented, enveloped single stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae family with helical capsid symmetry nm. It is spread by airborne and mechanical routes feed, water, and equipment. Immunosuppression plays a role, and E. Swollen heads are typically seen following a severe reaction to NDV-IBV vaccination in stressed immunosuppressed birds. In the United States turkey rhinotracheitis is caused by a bacteria Bordetella avium.
Special note Swollen Head Syndrome is a common problem in broiler breeders and occasionally in broilers and layers in Europe and South Africa. Clinical signs: Signs include snicking, rales, sneezing, nasal discharge, foamy conjunctivitis, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Diagnosis: Viral isolation from the trachea, lungs or nasal exudate in embryonating turkey eggs, chicken organ cultures, and PCR are diagnostic.
It simulates many respiratory diseases including influenza, bronchitis, mycoplasma, E. Antibiotics can be used for secondary invaders. Fresh air in the house and reduced stocking density are helpful.
The Avian Metapneumovirus Information Website
US6605460B1 - Avian pneumovirus vaccine - Google Patents