Distinguish between full joint probability distribution and joint probability distribution How to deal with uncertainty dec 05 2. Explain probabilistic reasoning june 07 4. Explain HMM 5. What is a Bayesian network 6.

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Russel and P. What is artificial intelligence? The exciting new effort to make computers think machines with minds in the full and literal sense. Artificial intelligence systemizes and automates intellectual tasks and is therefore potentially relevant to any sphere of human intellectual activities.

List down the characteristics of intelligent agent. Intelligent Agents are autonomous because they function without requiring that the Console or Management Server be running. An Agent that services a database can run when the database is down, allowing the Agent to start up or shut down the database.

The Intelligent Agents can independently perform administrative job tasks at any time, without active participation by the administrator. Similarly, the Agents can autonomously detect and react to events, allowing them to monitor the system and execute a fixit job to correct problems without the intervention of the administrator.

What do you mean by local maxima with respect to search technique? The golden section search is a technique for finding the extremum minimum or maximum of a strictly unimodal function by successively narrowing the range of values inside which the extremum is known to exist. The technique derives its name from the fact that the algorithm maintains the function values for triples of points whose distances form a golden ratio.

The algorithm is the limit of Fibonacci search also described below for a large number of function evaluations. Define Turing test. The Turing test proposed by Alan Turing was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence. Turing defined intelligent behavior as the ability to achieve humanlevel performance in all cognitive tasks, sufficient to fool an interrogator. List the capabilities that a computer should possess for conducting a Turing Test? Define an agent.

An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through Sensors and acting upon the environment through effectors. Define rational agent.

A rational agent is one that does the right thing. Here right thing is one that will cause agent to be more successful. That leaves us with the problem of deciding how and when to evaluate the agents success.

Define an Omniscient agent. An omniscient agent knows the actual outcome of its action and can act accordingly; but omniscience is impossible in reality. What are the factors that a rational agent should depend on at any given time? The factors that a rational agent should depend on at any given time are, The performance measure that defines criterion of success; Agents prior knowledge of the environment; Action that the agent can perform; The agents percept sequence to date.

List the measures to determine agents behavior. The measures to determine agents behavior are, Performance measure, Rationality, Omniscience, Learning and Autonomy. List the various types of agent programs. The various types of agent programs are, Simple reflex agent program; Agent that keep track of the world; Goal based agent program; Utility based agent program.

List the components of a learning agent? The components of a learning agent are, Learning element; Performance element; Critic; Problem generator. List out some of the applications of Artificial Intelligence. Some of the applications of Artificial Intelligence are, Autonomous planning and scheduling; Game playing; Autonomous control; Diagnosis; Logistics planning; Robotics.

What is depth-limited search? Depth-limited avoids the pitfalls of DFS by imposing a cut off of the maximum depth of a path. This cutoff can be implemented by special depth limited search algorithm or by using the general search algorithm with operators that keep track of the depth. Define breadth-first search. The breadth-first search strategy is a simple strategy in which the root-node is expanded first, and then all the successors of the root node are expanded, then their successors and so on.

Define problem formulation. Problem formulation is the process of deciding what actions and states to consider for a goal that has been developed in the first step of problem solving. List the four components of a problem? The four components of a problem are, An initial state; Actions; Goal test; Path cost. Define iterative deepening search. Mention the criterias for the evaluation of search strategy.

The criterias for the evaluation of search strategy are, Completeness; Time complexity; Space complexity; Optimality. Define the term percept. The term percept refers to the agents perceptual inputs at any given instant.

An agents percept sequence is the complete history of everything that the agent has perceived. A constraint satisfaction problem is a special kind of problem satisfies some additional structural properties beyond the basic requirements for problem in general. In a CSP, the states are defined by the values of a set of variables and the goal test specifies a set of constraint that the value must obey.

List some of the uninformed search techniques. What factors determine the selection of forward or backward reasoning approach for an AI problem? A search procedure must find a path between initial and goal states. There are two directions in which a search process could proceed. Reason forward from the initial states: Being formed the root of the search tree. General the next level of the tree by finding all the rules whose left sides match the root node, and use their right sides to generate the siblings.

Repeat the process until a configuration that matches the goal state is generated. What are the limitations in using propositional logic to represent the knowledge base? Formalise the following English sentences: Al is small Ted is small Someone is small Everyone is small No-one is not small Propositional Logic would represent each of these as a different Proposition, so the five propositions might be represented by P.

Q, R, S and T What this representation is missing is the similarity between the propositions, they are all concerned with the relation small Predicate logic allows relations and quantification which allows the representation of English descriptors like someone, everyone and noone 3.

What are Logical agents? Logical agents apply inference to a knowledge base to derive new information and make decisions. What is first-order logic? The first-order logic is sufficiently expressive to represent a good deal of our commonsense knowledge. It also either subsumes or forms the foundation of many other representation languages. What is a symbol? The basic syntactic elements of first-order logic are the symbols.

It stands for objects, relations and functions. What are the types of Quantifiers? What are the three kinds of symbols? The three kinds of symbols are, Constant symbols standing for objects; Predicate symbols standing for relations; Function symbols standing for functions.

What is Logic? Logic is one which consist of A formal system for describing states of affairs, consisting of a Syntax b Semantics; Proof Theory a set of rules for deducing the entailment of set sentences. Define a Sentence? Each individual representation of facts is called a sentence.

The sentences are expressed in a language called as knowledge representation language. Define a Proof. A sequence of application of inference rules is called a proof. Finding proof is exactly finding solution to search problems. If the successor function is defined to generate all possible applications of inference rules then the search algorithms can be applied to find proofs. Define Interpretation Interpretation specifies exactly which objects, relations and functions are referred to by the constant predicate, and function symbols.

What are the three levels in describing knowledge based agent? The three levels in describing knowledge based agent Logical level; Implementation level; Knowledge level or epistemological level. Define Syntax? Syntax is the arrangement of words. Syntax of a knowledge describes the possible configurations that can constitute sentences. Syntax of the language describes how to make sentences. Define Semantics The semantics of the language defines the truth of each sentence with respect to each possible world.

With this semantics, when a particular configuration exists within an agent, the agent believes the corresponding sentence. Define Modus Ponens rule in Propositional logic? The standard patterns of inference that can be applied to derive chains of conclusions that lead to the desired goal is said to be Modus Ponens rule.

Define a knowledge Base. Knowledge base is the central component of knowledge base agent and it is described as a set of representations of facts about the world. Define an inference procedure. An inference procedure reports whether or not a sentence is entitled by knowledge base provided a knowledge base and a sentence. An inference procedure i can be described by the sentences that it can derive. What are the basic Components of propositional logic?

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## CS2351-Artificial-Intelligence-2008-Reg

Unit 2 1. Explain in detail about logical agents with example. Explain with at least 4 examples for PEAS cycle. Unit 3 1. Explain about partial order planning with an example.

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