This method, dating back to the 19th century, produced a "classic style" appreciated by Knuth. When Knuth received the galley proofs of the new book on 30 March , he found them inferior. Disappointed by the galley proofs of the second edition of the second volume, he was motivated to design his own typesetting system. Knuth saw for the first time the output of a high-quality digital typesetting system, and became interested in digital typography.
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This method, dating back to the 19th century, produced a "classic style" appreciated by Knuth. When Knuth received the galley proofs of the new book on 30 March , he found them inferior. Disappointed by the galley proofs of the second edition of the second volume, he was motivated to design his own typesetting system.
Knuth saw for the first time the output of a high-quality digital typesetting system, and became interested in digital typography. On 13 May , he wrote a memo to himself describing the basic features of TeX. Guy Steele happened to be at Stanford during the summer of , when Knuth was developing his first version of TeX.
WEB and literate programming[ edit ] For later versions of TeX, Knuth invented the concept of literate programming , a way of producing compilable source code and cross-linked documentation typeset in TeX from the same original file. Among other changes, the original hyphenation algorithm was replaced by a new algorithm written by Frank Liang. TeX82 also uses fixed-point arithmetic instead of floating-point , to ensure reproducibility of the results across different computer hardware,  and includes a real, Turing-complete programming language, following intense lobbying by Guy Steele.
This is a reflection of the fact that TeX is now very stable, and only minor updates are anticipated. The current version of TeX is 3. While such extensions have been created including some by Knuth himself ,  most people have extended TeX only using macros and it has remained a system associated with technical typesetting.
TeX is a macro - and token -based language: many commands, including most user-defined ones, are expanded on the fly until only unexpandable tokens remain, which are then executed. Expansion itself is practically free from side effects. Tail recursion of macros takes no memory, and if-then-else constructs are available. This makes TeX a Turing-complete language even at the expansion level.
Combinations of a backslash actually, any character of category zero followed by letters characters of category 11 or a single other character are replaced by a control-sequence token.
In this sense, this stage is like lexical analysis, although it does not form numbers from digits. In the next stage, expandable control sequences such as conditionals or defined macros are replaced by their replacement text. The input for the third stage is then a stream of characters including the ones with special meaning and unexpandable control sequences typically assignments and visual commands.
The fourth stage breaks the vertical list of lines and other material into pages. The TeX system has precise knowledge of the sizes of all characters and symbols, and using this information, it computes the optimal arrangement of letters per line and lines per page. This dvi file can then be printed directly given an appropriate printer driver, or it can be converted to other formats.
By default, everything that follows a percent sign on a line is a comment, ignored by TeX. A DVI file could then either be viewed on screen or converted to a suitable format for any of the various printers for which a device driver existed printer support was generally not an operating system feature at the time that TeX was created.
Mathematical example[ edit ] TeX provides a different text syntax specifically for mathematical formulas.
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TeX represents the state of the art in computer typesetting. It is particularly valuable where the document, article, or book to be produced contains a lot of mathematics, and where the user is concerned about typographic quality. TeX software offers both writers and publishers the opportunity to produce technical text of all kinds, in an attractive form, with the speed and efficiency of a computer system. Knuth warns newcomers away from the more difficult areas, while he entices experienced users with new challenges. The novice need not learn much about TeX to prepare a simple manuscript with it.
His father had two jobs: running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Although the judges only had 2, words on their list, Donald found 4, words, winning the contest. As prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming.
Books in Print by Donald E. Knuth