All people on the plane died. Beginning in the early s, a number of studies looked at the occurrence of CFIT accidents, where a properly functioning airplane under the control of a fully qualified and certificated crew is flown into terrain or water or obstacles with no apparent awareness on the part of the crew. Donald Bateman , an engineer at Honeywell , is credited with developing the first ground proximity warning system GPWS ; in an early test, conducted after the crash of Alaska Airlines Flight , the device provided sufficient warning for a small plane to avoid the terrain, but not enough for the larger Boeing jetliner involved. As a result of these studies and recommendations from the U. These operators were required to install TSO-approved GPWS equipment or alternative ground proximity advisory systems that provide routine altitude callouts whether or not there is any imminent danger.
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Source: US FAA Description A Terrain Avoidance and Warning System TAWS is a safety net that automatically provides a distinctive warning to pilots when the their aeroplane is, based only on the radio altimeter reading and terrain closure rates derived therefrom, in potentially hazardous proximity to terrain. Subsequent improvements added aeroplane configuration e. However, it suffered from a significant limitation because it was dependent on the radio altimeter as the means to measure proximity to terrain which meant that there was insufficient time to avoid a sudden change in terrain in the form of steeply rising ground.
A comprehensive set of reliable cautions and warnings can be generated which use both the radio altimeter and relative position. In essence, Class A systems are required for all but the smallest commercial air transport aircraft, while Class B systems are required by larger General Aviation GA aircraft and recommended for smaller commercial or GA aircraft. Full details of regulatory requirements are given later in this article. The FLTA function looks ahead of the aircraft along and below its lateral and vertical flight path and provides suitable alerts if a potential CFIT threat exists.
An appropriate visual and aural discrete signal for both caution and warning alerts. The manufacturer may provide other functions in addition to the above.
Aircraft Equipment Aircraft equipment operated by the pilot comprises: A control and indicator unit. The control and indicator unit contains, as a minimum, two lights: a red light to indicate a hard warning imminent danger and an amber light to indicate an alert soft warning or caution.
Ground proximity warning system
A CFIT accident is one where a properly functioning airplane under the control of a fully qualified and certified crew is flown into terrain, water or obstacles with no apparent awareness on the part of the crew. As a result of these studies and recommendations from the U. FAA amended operating rules to require that all U. A report stated that from , when the U.
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System