ELAPHE DAVID PDF

Physical characteristics[ edit ] Like most of the rat snakes , Elaphe spp. Elaphe spp. In cross section, Elaphe spp. The curving of the ventral scales gives them better traction for tree climbing. The curvy teeth help fix the prey and prevent them from escaping once they are caught.

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Physical characteristics[ edit ] Like most of the rat snakes , Elaphe spp. Elaphe spp. In cross section, Elaphe spp. The curving of the ventral scales gives them better traction for tree climbing. The curvy teeth help fix the prey and prevent them from escaping once they are caught.

They have internal ears that enables them to detect sounds at low frequencies. The ears consist of a single ear bone connected to a jaw bone.

Compared to other snakes, they are considered to have highly developed vision that allows them to detect the movement of their predators and prey. The eyes are protected by single transparent brilles. Then, the organ analyzes the molecules to identify the scent. Among these detectable scents are pheromones , which indicate the presence of other snakes and their reproductive readiness.

Males live a little longer than females, [2] but some species, such as E. They usually mate with the opposite sex after emerging from hibernation in the spring. The gestation period of females is around 1. Throughout the year, they are usually active from April to October, followed by a period of hibernation. Hibernation[ edit ] Elaphe spp. Thus, they need to maintain their body energy by switching locations and remaining physiologically inactive when winter comes.

Some Elaphe spp. Some snakes that live close to human communities even hibernate in old wells and barns. The length of the hibernation varies by species. Elaphe longissima , or Aesculapian snake, may hibernate from October to May, [12] as it is among the northernmost occurring rat snakes. However, Elaphe bimaculata , or the twin-spotted rat snake, only needs to hibernate for 2 to 3 months.

Males try to attract females with pheromones , as the females pass through their territories. Male Aesculapian snakes pursue female snakes until they can coil around them. They continue in such position, which is then followed by dancing for up to an hour before copulation , during which the male snake lines up with the female and holds her in place by wrapping his tail around hers and grasping her with his mouth.

The mating process lasts from a few minutes to a few hours. They usually lay eggs in the soft heart of a rotten log or in sandy soil under a rock. A good place for laying eggs is one that is damp but not wet, and warm but not hot.

After laying eggs, the female snake covers them up with sand or soil, and then she leaves. Oviparous E. The adult snakes return to their hibernation dens in the late fall. The mating process is similar to E. The eggs are generally not protected by the adults. After 60—65 days, the eggs hatch in July through September. They are prone to freeze their movements when they are shocked or encountering danger.

This motionless response has contributed to many road kills of Elaphe. However, some Elaphe spp. For example, Texas rat snakes , Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri , are well known as one of the most snappy and combative rat snakes. In general, their defense system can be broken down to two levels. The first line of defense involves specific behaviors that they use to warn the intruders. One of the most common ways is by coiling their bodies and vibrating their tails, which simulates a rattle. Fox snakes, Elaphe vulpina and Elaphe gloydi , exemplify this type of defense mechanism; they mimic the rattling vibration of rattlesnakes when they encounter danger.

The musk is originated from the contents of the anal gland and the intestinal tract. They use the curvy ventral scales of their bodies to grab the rough ground surfaces and then push against the ground to generate a forward movement. Thus, the smoother the ground is, the harder it is for them to move across it. Predation[ edit ] Adult Elaphe spp. Juveniles feed on small lizards, young mice, and occasionally small frogs i.

Species such as E. Then, they strike the prey and bite it. As they continue to coil more tightly, the pressure on the chest prevents the blood from circulating into the heart, which eventually leads to heart failure. In addition, they do not chew their food, but swallow it whole. Most are terrestrial or semiarboreal, but some burrow in sand or loose soil. For example, the black rat snake, E. Their population can be distributed throughout all elevations, usually on rocky hillsides of mountains, or on flat farmlands.

Similarly, the Everglades rat snake, E.

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ELAPHE DAVID PDF

Find more photos by Google images search: National Center for Biotechnology Information http: Bilateria bilaterally symmetrical animals. Koeltz Scientific Books, pp. On a collection of reptiles from China. Species Elaphe helena Trinket Snake. The Animal Diversity Web online.

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Elaphe davidi

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