This International Standard covers the requirements for paper and board, plastic, metal, adhesives except spray adhesives , writing, labelling and printing materials. It is applicable to photographs made with hardcopy materials. Included are photographs made with traditional chromogenic "silver-halide" and silver dye bleach photographic materials, dye- and pigment-based inkjet, dye diffusion thermal transfer "dye sublimation" , liquid- and dry-toner electrophotography, and other analogue and digital print processes. This International Standard applies to storage copies and does not include work copies as defined in Annex A.
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For example, ageing blemishes in processed silver gelatin microfilm may be caused by chemicals such as peroxides evolved from the paper see [1, 2] in the bibliography. Likewise, the presence of acid in paper can cause paper degradation. The enclosure itself shall be chemically stable.
Otherwise, the decomposition products might be harmful to the photographic material, and dirt or dust might be produced that could scratch, or become embedded in the image surface. Cellulose nitrate, polyvinyl chloride, and glassine sheeting are examples of enclosure materials that are either chemically or physically unstable and shall not be used see [3, 4] in the bibliography.
The surface of the enclosure material is also important. The enclosure shall not abrade the photograph. While a slightly textured or matte surface is recommended for the filing enclosure to minimize ferrotyping see below , a rough surface can produce abrasion problems.
There may be other harmful physical characteristics of the enclosure material that may develop under adverse environmental conditions e.
These include wrinkling and distortions common to glassine paper or ferrotyping of the image surface, i. Finally, enclosures shall be of sound and sturdy construction so that the enclosure functions properly during use, without seams or fabrication components failing or otherwise damaging the photographs during storage.
Paper, cardboard, and plastic enclosure materials, slide mounts, inks and adhesives shall meet the requirements of the photographic activity test as described in ISO This incubation test determines whether these materials have a chemical interaction with silver, colour or diazo images or cause stain in a gelatin binder see  in the bibliography. The photographic activity test is also applicable for testing chemical interactions caused by album storage materials If a particular brand of commercially made paper, cardboard, or plastic enclosure material, ink, and adhesive is found to be safe for long-term storage purposes i.
Subsequent batches shall require evaluation and testing according to this International Standard and ISO This alkali reserve shall be accomplished by the incorporation of an alkaline earth carbonate or equivalent. The alkali reserve shall be evenly distributed throughout the paper or paperboard. The pH shall be between 7,0 and 9,5 as determined by the method given in ISO This alkali reserve shall be accomplished by the incorporation of an alkaline earth carbonate or the equivalent, as described below.
A minimum of sizing chemicals shall be used, the amount being dictated by the requirements of the end use enclosures, overwraps, interleaving, etc. Dyes or pigments used to colour the paper shall show no bleeding or transfer when soaked in distilled water for 48 h while held in direct contact with white bond paper. The surface of the paper shall be free of knots, shives and other abrasive particles.
Surface fibres that might offset onto photographic layers should not be present. The paper shall not contain waxes, plasticizers, or other ingredients that may transfer to the photographic material during storage. The paper shall meet the physical tests required for the particular application. Under prolonged direct contact in adverse environmental conditions of high relative humidity or immersion in water, paper with a pH greater than 8,0 may cause increased yellow stain formation and cyan dye fading in chromogenic colour photographs or diazo dye formation in processed diazo photographs.
It should also be noted that the pH of paper will decrease with age, especially in highly polluted environments or when used to enclose acidic photographic materials, leading to embrittlement and discolouration.
For this reason, an alkali reserve is generally recommended for the permanence of the enclosure paper. Enclosures that have become highly acidic should be replaced to avoid deleterious effects on dye stability, e. A suitable plastic enclosure material is polyester [poly ethylene terephthalate ]. In addition, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, and spun-bonded polyolefins generally have been found suitable as they are usually inert, unplasticized, and have good chemical stability. Other plastics may be satisfactory, but there has been no extended experience with such materials.
Chlorinated or nitrated sheeting, such as polyvinyl chloride and cellulose nitrate, shall not be used. Highly plasticized sheetings or coatings shall not be employed, as this might result in either sticking or ferrotyping of the image surface. Plastics of unknown quality containing residual solvents or plasticizers are suspect, because these chemicals may escape and have a harmful effect on the photographic image.
Plastics used for containers shall contain anti-oxidants and non-halogenated fire retardants, such as antimony oxide. Most plastic sheeting used for enclosures contains slip agents and anti-blocking agents, in order to lower the coefficient of friction on the surface to prevent blocking of the sheets. In some plastics, these components may migrate from the body of the plastic sheeting to the surface, where they redeposit as an oily residue that may transfer to the photograph stored inside the enclosure.
In addition, this oily film may attract dust and other foreign matter that could cause abrasion or otherwise deteriorate the photograph.
Currently there is no standard test procedure to evaluate the suitability of slip agents and anti-block agents in plastic enclosures for long-term storage of photographs. The plastic shall meet the physical tests required for the particular application. The use of steel is permissible, provided the surface is well-protected by powder coating, tinning, plating, or some other corrosion-resistant finish. Lacquer or enamel that might give off reactive fumes, peroxides or exudations during storage shall not be used.
Metal finishes shall meet the requirements of the photographic activity test described in ISO Some photographic images can be damaged by adhesives that contain impurities such as sulfur, iron, copper, or other ingredients that might attack image silver, gelatin, or film and paper supports. Various adhesives are hygroscopic, thus increasing the possibility of local chemical activity.
Many adhesives discolour with age, staining any material with which they are in contact, or fail over time causing enclosure seams to open up. Pressure-sensitive adhesives generally have poor long-term stability characteristics and should be avoided. Rubber-based products, such as rubber cement, shall be avoided. Not only might they contain harmful solvents or plasticizers, they might also be compounded with photographically damaging sulfur, usually a vulcanizer, accelerator or stabilizer.
The ink used for imprinting filing enclosures shall not bleed, spread or transfer when soaked in distilled water for 48 h while held in direct contact with white bond paper.
In addition, the ink shall not be a source of products that attack the photograph or 4 the enclosure itself. To ensure that the ink is inactive, it shall pass the photographic activity test described in ISO The advantages and disadvantages of each are also discussed.
The choice depends on the degree of protection required, the frequency of use, and the application of the photographic material. All materials used in fabricating enclosures shall comply with the appropriate requirements of clause 4.
Photographs stored in albums may be attached to paper pages, that may have protective plastic cover sheets, or inserted into pocket pages or envelopes. In order to protect the three open sides of an album from light and dust, a slipcase may be used a narrow box with an open end into which the album is inserted or the album may be placed into a carton or box.
It may be a fabrication of paper, card stock, or plastic. A cemented bottom seam shall not be used, because 5 the contents tend to slide to the bottom of the envelope.
The adhesive used on the edges shall not extend beyond the overlap or into the interior of the envelope. The width of any sealed flaps shall be as narrow as practical to reduce pressure differential effects upon the photographic material. The envelope may or may not have a protective flap at the open end to provide additional protection against contamination by dust. If a flap is used, it shall not have adhesive or be sealed with tape or rubber bands. If there is no flap, some degree of dust protection is obtained when the open end is not used as the top.
Envelopes made from plastic sheeting may also have a sealable mechanism along the open end, such as interlocking grooves, that offer protection against contamination by dust or infiltration of water. Folders may be made from either paper or plastic. This modification does not offer as much protection from dirt as a full panel, but it makes access to the microfiche very convenient. Channels may also be formed by heat-sealing, ultrasonic welding, or by a bead of polyester adhesive.
The channels shall be designed to permit insertion of the processed photographic material without undue abrasion. Pages are made with multiple pockets having uniform dimensions to accommodate a certain photographic format and size such as slides, film sheets or strips, and reflection prints. The page frequently has holes along one edge to allow the page to be used in ring binders or albums.
The seam may be formed with an adhesive by heat-sealing or ultrasonic welding, or the same result may be achieved by tightly creasing a flap of enclosure material, sometimes referred to as a captive-flap enclosure.
If an adhesive is used, it shall not extend beyond the area of the overlap. A sleeve is generally made from plastic sheeting. It may be fabricated of paper, plastic, or metal and held together by adhesive or interlocking parts. The photographic film may be encased between two glass plates. This is principally used for the storage or display of reflection prints attached to the back card. The enclosure shall be sufficiently large to permit the desired number of photographic materials to be inserted and withdrawn without producing abrasion, and at the same time be sufficiently close-fitting to prevent excessive movement within the enclosure.
Therefore, seams shall be cemented on the outside of the envelope and the adhesive shall not extend beyond the seam joint. Likewise, envelopes with bottom seams may cause similar effects when the photograph inside slides to the bottom of the envelope. For this reason, envelopes with centre and bottom seams shall be avoided. The use of envelopes constructed with a bottom fold and two side-edge seams avoids these problems and is preferable to other designs. The seam should be as narrow as possible to reduce or prevent distortion of the enclosure material.
This design will also prevent pressure marks and permanent distortion of the photographic material during long-term storage due to pressure being exerted by the extra thickness of the seam.
Wrinkles in the enclosure are another possible source of pressure marks; seams shall be smooth and free of wrinkles. Envelopes shall be sufficiently large to contain photographs without having the interior seam edge coincide with the enclosed photograph. Photographs having an emulsion on only one surface shall be inserted with the emulsion side away from the envelope seams, in order to minimize adverse interactions caused by the seam on the image side of the photograph.
Paper is opaque and thus protects the photographic image from light, but the contents must be removed for identification or use. However, paper readily accepts writing. Plastic sheeting, with the exception of coloured sheeting or spun-bonded polyolefin sheeting, is generally transparent, permitting easy identification but offering little light protection.
Plastic sheeting is more difficult to form and seal and is subject to dust attraction due to static electricity. Folders are the easiest to use and reduce the possibility of abrading the photographic material upon insertion or withdrawal, but they offer the least protection from dust and gaseous contaminants.
They are suitable for photographic materials that are used frequently. Pocket pages, sleeves, or sheaths are usually transparent and therefore offer little light protection.
Although the photographic image may be abraded during insertion, it is thereafter well-protected from abrasion; the photographic image is easily identifiable and may be viewed without removal from the enclosure. The open ends provide little protection from airborne contaminants.
Sleeves or sheaths made of polyester sheeting may cause abrasion during handling if they develop kinks in the surface; pocket pages are generally made from polyolefin plastics which do not tend to form surface kinks. Jackets, like all plastic enclosures, generally offer little light protection but good dust and abrasion protection.
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