Which of the following would not be considered a characteristic of money? It is a store of value B. It is a means of payment C. It must have intrinsic value D.

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Describe at least three ways you could pay for your morning cup of coffee. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? LO2 Answer: You could use money, a check, or a debit card. Money: This is the most likely to be accepted, but it means you have to replenish your supply periodically.

Check: The least likely to be accepted, and it means you have to walk around with your checkbook. But the funds remain in your bank account for the time it takes the check to make its way through the clearing system. Debit Card: This is very convenient, and likely to be accepted. But when the electronic signal arrives at your bank later in the day, the funds are withdrawn immediately from your account. This is probably the cheapest option for the merchant. You are the owner of a small sandwich shop.

A buyer may offer one of several payment methods: cash, a check drawn on a bank, a credit card, or a debit card. Which of these is the least costly for you? Explain why the others are more expensive. LO2 Answer: Cash is the cheapest option for the merchant; no information is required about the buyer and no additional costs are imposed though the merchant may need to guard against counterfeiting.

Most merchants will ask for a government-issued photo ID in order to accept payment by check, requiring more time per transaction. If not, the merchant will likely undergo a costly process of contacting the buyer and trying to coax the funds from the individual.

A payment by credit card provides the merchant with more protection than does a check because the payment is made by the financial institution issuing the card.

However, the merchant pays the card issuer a fee usually a percentage of the transaction value for the certainty of the payment. LO3 Answer: Without money, people have to barter to exchange goods and services. LO2 Answer: Yes. Using dollars and cents to quote prices and record debts does not depend on cash being used as a means of payment.

Dollars and cents may still serve as the standard measurement of value even if they are not themselves exchanged. Give four examples of ACH transactions you might make.

LO2 Answer: a. You schedule your monthly electric bill payment to be made automatically. You make your payments on your credit card to your bank by scheduling the payment each month for the outstanding balance. You make your monthly car payment by arranging for the amount to be deducted from your checking account on the fourth day of each month. As of July , 17 of the 28 countries of the European Union have adopted the euro.

The remaining 11 countries, including Great Britain, Denmark, and Sweden have retained their own currencies. What are the advantages of a common currency for someone who is traveling through Europe? LO1 Answer: Each country has the same unit of account, making it easier for a traveler to compare prices in different countries. The traveler also saves the costs of exchanging currencies. Why might each of the following commodities not serve well as money?

LO2 a. Tomatoes b. Bricks c. Cattle Answer: a. Tomatoes are perishable and thus would not serve as a store of value. Bricks are heavy and bulky and will break easily. In addition, even though bricks break easily, they are not easily divisible into usable units. Cattle are not standardized in terms of weight and other potentially important characteristics. Chapter 02 - Money and the Payments System 8. What will be the impact of this discovery on the economy? Theoretically, inflation could result if the supply of money was increased by a large enough amount.

You receive a check drawn on another bank and deposit it into your checking account. Would your answer change if the check is drawn on the account of another customer of your own bank? LO2 Answer: Funds drawn on another bank are not immediately available i. So, when you deposit a check drawn on another bank, you must wait until your bank obtains the funds from the other bank.

Over a nine-year period in the 16th century, King Henry VIII reduced the silver content of the British pound to one-sixth its initial value. Why do you think he did so? What do you think happened to the use of pounds as a means of payment? If you held both the old and new pounds, which would you use first, and why?

LO1 Answer: King Henry needed to silver to pay for wars. The use of pounds as a means of payment declined because people could not be sure how much silver each coin contained.

People spent the new coins first since the old coins had a higher intrinsic value. Under what circumstances might you expect barter to reemerge in an economy that has fiat money as a means of payment?

Can you think of an example of a country where this has happened recently? LO3 Answer: You might expect an economy to revert to barter when the public loses confidence in the fiat money issued by the government, perhaps because of over-use of the printing presses. You visit a tropical island that has only four goods in its economy — oranges, pineapples, coconuts and bananas.

There is no money in this economy. Draw a grid showing all the prices for this economy. An islander suggests designating oranges as the means of payment and unit of account for the economy. How many prices would there be if her suggestion were followed? Do you think the change suggested in part b is worth implementing? Why or why not? Answer: a. There would be six prices in total. In the case of this four-good economy, there is only a small gain by using oranges as a unit of account.

The gains would be significantly bigger in an economy with more goods. If the islanders think the range of goods in their economy is likely to expand, then it is probably worth implementing the change. One of the drawbacks to consider would be the danger that more people would grow oranges, due to their special status, thus pushing up the prices of the other fruits in terms of oranges.

Consider again the tropical island described in Problem Under what circumstances would you recommend the issue of a paper currency by the government of the island? What advantages might this strategy have over the use of oranges as money? LO1 Answer: The Islanders must have enough confidence in their government to accept notes backed only by a government decree that have no intrinsic value themselves.

The have to believe that these notes will be widely accepted by other islanders as final payment for goods and services and in settlement of debts. They must trust that the government will not print too much of the money and undermine its value.

Some advantages of the paper money over commodity money in the form of oranges include: being easier to carry, longer lasting and more divisible. Most importantly, it would be the government that would control the supply of money on the island as only the government could print new notes, while any of the islanders might decide to grow more oranges. What factors should you take into account when considering using the following assets as stores of value? LO1 a. Real estate c. Stocks d. Government bonds Answer: a.

The potential for the price of gold to rise, the ability to buy and sell gold easily and any costs associated with storage and security. The rate at which real estate is appreciating and is likely to appreciate in the future; how easy or difficult it is to sell real estate; the housing services you could receive from holding the real estate.

The potential appreciation in nominal value of the stock; the historical volatility of the stock price; the volume of the stock being traded on the secondary market to gauge its liquidity. When assessing an asset as a store of value, the primary things to consider are the risk and return of the asset and its liquidity. LO3 Answer: If there were deflation in the economy, then paper currency would increase in value. When deflation occurs, overall prices in the economy are falling and so the currency you hold has more purchasing power.

During periods of falling prices of goods and services, prices of assets often fall too and so currency might be an attractive option as a store of value.

Suppose a significant fall the price of certain stocks caused the market makers in those stocks to experience difficulties with their funding liquidity. Under what circumstances might that development lead to liquidity problems in markets for other assets? This, in turn, reduces loans available for other market participants potentially causing them to alter their behavior and could lead to funding liquidity problems throughout the financial system.

Moreover, to fund itself, the market maker might try to sell other assets, depressing their prices and spreading the disruption. Suppose the inflation rate based on the consumer price index is higher during the year than that based on the GDP deflator.

Assuming underlying tastes and preferences in the economy stay the same, what can you say about food and apparel price movements during the year? LO3 Chapter 02 - Money and the Payments System Answer: Since the two price indices yield different inflation rates with preferences remaining constant, the relative price of the two goods must have changed. In other words, the price of one of the goods must have gone up by a greater percentage than the other.


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